Dart for Web Development: Building Web Applications with Dart

Have you ever wondered what it would be like to build web applications with a programming language that is both easy-to-learn and powerful? Look no further than Dart, a language created by Google for web development that enhances productivity and maintains high code quality.

Dart provides a plethora of features for building modern and responsive web applications, such as a type system, an efficient garbage collector, and a seamless integration with JavaScript. From small-scale projects to large-scale applications, Dart helps web developers create reliable and efficient code.

In this article, we’ll delve into the world of Dart for web development and explore its various components and features. We’ll go through the basics of Dart, talk about what makes it so unique and beneficial for web development, and see some concrete examples of how to use it in building modern web applications.

Getting Started with Dart

Before we delve into Dart’s web development functionalities, let’s first understand the basics of Dart. Dart is a statically-typed, object-oriented language that emphasizes on optional typing, meaning developers can choose between specifying the variable types or let the Dart analyzer infer the type automatically. This makes it easy for developers to maintain the codebase and write clean code.

One of the core principles of Dart is to facilitate the development process and minimize code complexity. For this reason, Dart supports standard object-oriented concepts, such as classes, interfaces, mixins, and generics. Additionally, Dart also supports functional programming, making it easy to write code that is both clean and easy to understand.

Dart’s Type System

Dart has a robust and expressive type system that makes it easy for developers to maintain the codebase and provide constraints that help catch runtime errors during build-time. Dart’s type system supports a variety of type annotations, including:

The type system also supports the concept of Generics, allowing developers to use a type parameter that is defined at runtime. This helps developers reduce code duplication and create more reusable code.

Dart’s Garbage Collector

Dart has a garbage collector that helps the memory allocation process and enhances the runtime performance of the application. The garbage collector is a low-pause time collector, meaning that it will cause minimal interruptions to the application to perform its duty. Also, Dart’s garbage collector is optimized for mobile devices and web applications, helping reduce battery usage and memory consumption when running on these devices.

Dart and JavaScript Interoperability

Dart provides a feature to integrate with JavaScript seamlessly. Developers can use this to reuse existing JavaScript libraries or existing web components. This interoperability makes it easy for developers to write code that is both familiar and easy-to-use for JavaScript developers.

Dart for Web Development

Now that we’ve understood the basics of Dart, let’s see how it can be used for web development. Dart provides a variety of libraries, frameworks, and tools that make it easy for developers to create responsive, scalable, and functional web applications.

Dart Web Libraries

Dart provides a set of web libraries out-of-the-box, including:

These libraries make it easy for developers to work with DOM manipulation, database functionality, and JavaScript integration.


AngularDart is a powerful and feature-rich framework built on top of Dart. It provides a robust set of tools and functionalities for creating modern web applications. The framework is designed with an emphasis on modularity, making it easy for developers to create reusable pieces of code. Additionally, it provides a rich set of UI components, making it easy to create beautiful and responsive user interfaces.


Flutter is a UI toolkit developed by Google and built with Dart. With Flutter, developers can create mobile and web applications with a single codebase. Flutter provides a set of UI widgets that make it easy to develop mobile and web applications. Additionally, it provides a hot reload feature, making it easy to make changes to the codebase and see the changes in real-time.

Building a Web Application with Dart

Now that we’ve seen some of the capabilities of Dart for web development let’s build a simple web application using Dart. In this example, we’ll create a simple “Hello, world!” application that will interact with the user.

First, we’ll create an HTML file called index.html, which will contain the following code:

<!DOCTYPE html>
    <title>Hello World</title>
    <script type="application/dart" src="hello.dart"></script>
    <script src="https://www.dartlang.org/assets/shared/dart.js"></script>

In this code, we’re creating an HTML page with a title and including a Dart script (hello.dart) to the page.

Next, we’ll create our Dart file, called hello.dart, which will contain the following code:

import 'dart:html';

void main() {
  querySelector('#output').text = 'Hello, world!';

In this code, we’re using the dart:html library to interact with HTML elements on the page. We define a main function that gets called when the page is loaded. In this function, we’re grabbing an element with an ID of “output” and setting the text of the element to “Hello, world!”.

Finally, we’ll create a CSS file, called style.css, which will contain the following code:

#output {
  font-size: 40px;
  text-align: center;

In this code, we’re defining a CSS style for the “output” element, which we’re using to set the font size to 40 pixels and center align the text on the page.

Now, we can load the index.html page in our browser, and we should see “Hello, world!” appear in the center of the page in a large font size.


Dart is a powerful programming language for web development that combines ease-of-use with robust functionality. Its type system and garbage collector make application development a breeze, while its interoperability with JavaScript and web libraries make it easy to build responsive and scalable applications. Additionally, its frameworks and tools, such as AngularDart and Flutter, provide a powerful set of tools for creating modern web applications.

In this article, we’ve explored the basic principles of Dart, discussed its capabilities for web development, and demonstrated its usefulness by building a simple web application. With all that Dart has to offer, there’s never been a better time to start exploring this exciting programming language for your next web development project.

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Written by AI researcher, Haskell Ruska, PhD (haskellr@mit.edu). Scientific Journal of AI 2023, Peer Reviewed