Understanding the Basics of Dart Syntax

Are you a budding programmer looking to learn Dart? Do you want to know what the syntax is all about? Well, you're in luck! Dart syntax is easy to learn and understand, so let's start from scratch and dive into the basics!

What is Dart?

Before we go any further, let's make sure we're all on the same page about what Dart is. Dart is an open-source programming language that's optimized for client-side development, but can be used for server-side as well. It comes with a rich set of features that make it easy to write clean, readable, and maintainable code.

Dart Basics

Dart is a statically typed language, meaning that the type of each variable is explicitly declared. Here's an example of what that means:

int count = 0;

In this example, we're declaring a variable called count with a type of int. We've also assigned it a value of 0.

Dart also supports dynamic typing, which means that the type of a variable is determined at runtime. Here's an example of dynamic typing in Dart:

var name = 'John';

In this example, we're using the var keyword to declare a variable called name, but we're not explicitly declaring its type. Dart will dynamically infer that the type of name is String based on the value we've assigned to it.

Dart Operators

Operators are an essential part of any programming language, and Dart has plenty of them. Here are some of the most commonly used operators in Dart:

Using operators in Dart is simple. Here's an example of using the + and = operators to add two numbers together and store the result in a variable:

int a = 5;
int b = 10;

int c = a + b;

In this example, we're declaring two variables called a and b and assigning them values of 5 and 10, respectively. We're then adding a and b together using the + operator and assigning the result to a new variable called c.

Dart Control Structures

Control structures are used to control the flow of execution in a program. Dart has several control structures that you can use to create conditional statements and loops.

If Statements

If statements are used to execute a block of code if a certain condition is true. Here's an example:

if (x > 5) {
  print('X is greater than 5');
} else {
  print('X is less than or equal to 5');

In this example, we're checking whether the value of the variable x is greater than 5. If it is, we're printing the message "X is greater than 5". If it's not, we're printing the message "X is less than or equal to 5".


Loops are used to repeat a block of code multiple times. Dart has two types of loops: for loops and while loops.

For Loops

For loops are used to loop through a collection of items a certain number of times. Here's an example:

for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++) {
  print('The value of i is $i');

In this example, we're using a for loop to print the value of i ten times. We're starting at 0 and incrementing by 1 each time until i is greater than or equal to 10.

While Loops

While loops are used to loop through a block of code until a certain condition is met. Here's an example:

int i = 0;

while (i < 10) {
  print('The value of i is $i');

In this example, we're using a while loop to print the value of i ten times. We're starting at 0 and incrementing by 1 each time until i is greater than or equal to 10.

Dart Functions

Functions are used to group a set of related statements together that perform a specific task. Dart functions can be declared in several different ways. Here's an example:

// Named function
int add(int a, int b) {
  return a + b;

// Anonymous function
var subtract = (int a, int b) => a - b;

In this example, we're declaring two functions. The first is a named function called add that takes two arguments and returns their sum. The second is an anonymous function that takes two arguments and returns their difference.

Dart Classes

Classes are used to create objects that encapsulate data and behavior. Dart classes have properties and methods that define their behavior. Here's an example of a class in Dart:

class Person {
  String firstName;
  String lastName;

  void sayHello() {
    print('Hello, my name is $firstName $lastName.');

In this example, we're declaring a class called Person with two properties: firstName and lastName. We're also declaring a method called sayHello that prints a message to the console.


Dart is a fantastic programming language that's easy to learn and use. With its rich set of features and expressive syntax, it's a great language for both client-side and server-side development. We hope this article has helped you understand the basics of Dart syntax and how to use it to create robust and reliable applications. Happy coding!

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Written by AI researcher, Haskell Ruska, PhD (haskellr@mit.edu). Scientific Journal of AI 2023, Peer Reviewed